Anatomy/ histology and physiology of the central nervous system. Common pathology involving the central nervous system. Pharmacology and medicinal chemistry of drugs that act on the central nervous system.
Characteristic of CNS Protected by cranium, meningis + csf
CSF -secreted by choroid plexuses (special capillaries in ventricles of the brain → form BBB) -act as shock absorbing medium
Brain stem -midbrain -pons → resp. center -medulla → resp. center, cardiac center (coordinating reflex for vomiting, swallowing, coughing, sneezing) -cerebellum → required for smooth coordinated movement + equilibrium
Blood brain barrier (BBB) -Composed of endothelial cells packed tightly together to form tight junction that prevent passage of most molecules. -An underlying basement membrane and specialized glial cells (astrocyte), which projects processes (pedicles) that attach to the walls of the capillary, reinforce this barrier. -Very few substances can cross the BBB into brain tissue: (1)Water is able to freely diffuse (2)Glucose (the primary energy source of the brain) and amino acid require carrier-mediated transport (3)Nonpolar lipid soluble substances can cross more readily than polar water-soluble ones (4)Other active transport systems are present to pump weak organic acids, halides and extracellular K+ across the BBB
The blood – CSF barrier -Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is clear, colorless fluid that normally contains none or few cells, a small amount of protein, and a moderate amount of glucose -The blood – CSF barrier is composed of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus – a highly vascular structure, located within the ventricles .
Function of NS Detect changes in internal and external environmental (in + outside the body) via sense organs (receptors)
↓ (information sent to CNS by sensory nerve/afferent nerve)
CNS (brain/spinal cord) – intergrating center
↓ (analyse the sensory information via motor nerve/efferent nerve – send instruction to)
1986: Kangar, Perlis.
1986 - 2003: Ipoh, Perak (SK Pasukan Polis Hutan, SAR Pasukan Polis Hutan, SMA Izzuddin Shah).
2004 - 2005: Kuala Kubu Bharu, Selangor (Darul Qur'an JAKIM).
2005 - 2007: Petaling Jaya, Selangor (Pusat Matrikulasi UIAM).
2007 - kini: Kuantan, Pahang (Kuliyyah Farmasi, UIAM Kuantan).